appelations for words in the same ball park by different means
Complete list of words ending in nym by American Heritage Dict. Most of the definitions given are from AHD.
antonym │ opposite of synonym
homonym │ same sound and possibly same spelling, but different in meaning. │ See this article, supposed from November 1988 edition of the Smithsonian magazine, by Felicia Lamport: homonym_1988-11_FL.txt
heteronym │ same spelling, different meaning and pronounciation. e.g. row
homophone │ different meaning and spelling. (pronounced the same.) e.g. night, knight
homograph │ different origin, meaning, and sometimes pronounciation.
paronym │ words that are paronymous. Paronymous means: Allied by derivation from the same root; having the same stem; for example, beautiful and beauteous.
acronym │ SOB is an acronym, as are POW, WASP. (words formed by initial letters)
allonym │ The name of a person, usually a historical person, assumed by a writer. Related words: hypocorism, euphony, euphemism
pseudonym │ synonymous to penname, nom de plume. I always thought that nom de plume means literally _name of a feather_, then i learned the etymology that plume means pen in French, as of old times, so nom de plume turns out to be just French version of pen-name.
eponym │ A person whose name is or is thought to be the source of the name of something, such as a city, country, or era. For example, Romulus is the eponym of Rome.
anonym │ a anonymous person, or, pseudonym.
metonym │ A word used in metonymy. metonymy means: A figure of speech in which one word or phrase is substituted for another with which it is closely associated, as in the use of Washington for the United States government or of the sword for military power.
tautonym │ A taxonomic designation, such as Gorilla gorilla, in which the genus and species names are the same, commonly used in zoology but no longer in botany.
toponym │ 1. A place name. 2. A name derived from a place or region.
caconym │ An erroneous name, especially in taxonomic classification; a misnomer.