Lojban and Chinese, A Word A Day

By Xah Lee. Date:

berti = north = 北bei3

berti | x1 is to the north/northern side [right-hand-rule pole] of x2 according to frame of reference x3

ma berti = which way is the north? = 那里是北方na3li3 shi4 bei3fang1?

那里 = where. 方 = direction.

djuno = know = 知zhi1, 知道dao4

djuno ≔ x1 knows fact(s) x2 (du'u) about subject x3 by epistemology x4
mi djuno = I know! = 我知道
mi na djuno = I don't know! = 我不知道
mi pu djuno = I knew before = 我以yi3 知道

Review by listening

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14

pu ≈ (past) ≈ (过去guo4qu4, 了le3)

pu is used before a word to indicate past. For example:

mi catra le danlu = i kill animal = 我杀动物
mi pu catra le danlu = i killed animal = 我杀了动物
mi pu citka = i ate (i have eaten) = 我吃了 (我吃过了)
la djan. pu klama le zarci = djan went to store = djan 去了商店 qu4le3 shang1dian4

杀 = kill. 动 = moving. 物 = object. 动物 = animal. 过 = pass by. 去 = go. 过去 = in the past. 了 is often added to sentence to mean past. 去 = go,了 = (past),商 = commerce, 店 = shop.

to'e ≈ opposite (of) ≈ 相反xiang1fan3 , 不bu4

the “to'e” can be used to indicate the opposite of something. For example:

mi to'e melbi = i'm opposite of beautiful (i'm ugly) = 我是美丽的相反 wo3shi4 mei3li4 de3 xiang1fan3.

ta to'e barda = that is opposite of big (that is small) = 那是大的相反 na4shi4 da4de3 xiang1fan3.

opposite = 相反. For example, “opposite of beautiful is ugly” = “美丽的相反是醜”.

beautiful = 美丽mei3li4 or 飘亮piao4liang4. 美丽 ~ esthetic. 飘亮 ~ good looking.

bartu = outside = 外wai4

bartu ≔ x1 is on the outside of x2; x1 is exterior to x2
mi bartu = i'm outside  = 我在外面
mi bartu le zdani = i'm outside the house = 我在房子外面
mi bartu le do zdani = i'm outside your house = 我在你的房子外面 wo3zai4 ni3de3 fang2zi3 wai4mian4

do = you. “do zdani” = “your house”. One can also say “zdani pe do”. The “pe” is possesive, like “of” or 的.

面 mian4 =face, surface, side. 外面 = outside. 房子 = house. 在 = at.

zunle = left = 左zuo3

zunle ≔ x1 is to the left/left-hand side of x2 which faces/in-frame-of-reference x3
zo'e zunle mi = on my left
zo'e na zunle = not on left
zo'e zunle do = on your left

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2004-02