Lojban and Chinese, A Word A Day

By Xah Lee. Date:

berti = north = 北bei3

berti | x1 is to the north/northern side [right-hand-rule pole] of x2 according to frame of reference x3

ma berti = which way is the north? = 那里是北方na3li3 shi4 bei3fang1?

那里 = where. 方 = direction.

djuno = know = 知zhi1, 知道dao4

djuno ≔ x1 knows fact(s) x2 (du'u) about subject x3 by epistemology x4
mi djuno = I know! = 我知道
mi na djuno = I don't know! = 我不知道
mi pu djuno = I knew before = 我以yi3 知道

Review by listening

mi toe melbi
do catlu ma
xu do tatpi
mi djica le ladru .e le nanba
le djacu ku glare
xu do sutra le citka
mi bartu le do zdani
mi pu catra le danlu
do ponse ma
xu do prami mi
do zvati ma
mi klama le zarci ku zoe zoe le barjra ku
xu ti lanzu do

pu ≈ (past) ≈ (过去guo4qu4, 了le3)

pu is used before a word to indicate past. For example:

mi catra le danlu = i kill animal = 我杀动物
mi pu catra le danlu = i killed animal = 我杀了动物
mi pu citka = i ate (i have eaten) = 我吃了 (我吃过了)
la djan. pu klama le zarci = djan went to store = djan 去了商店 qu4le3 shang1dian4

杀 = kill. 动 = moving. 物 = object. 动物 = animal. 过 = pass by. 去 = go. 过去 = in the past. 了 is often added to sentence to mean past. 去 = go,了 = (past),商 = commerce, 店 = shop.

to'e ≈ opposite (of) ≈ 相反xiang1fan3 , 不bu4

the “to'e” can be used to indicate the opposite of something. For example:

mi to'e melbi = i'm opposite of beautiful (i'm ugly) = 我是美丽的相反 wo3shi4 mei3li4 de3 xiang1fan3.

ta to'e barda = that is opposite of big (that is small) = 那是大的相反 na4shi4 da4de3 xiang1fan3.

opposite = 相反. For example, “opposite of beautiful is ugly” = “美丽的相反是醜”.

beautiful = 美丽mei3li4 or 飘亮piao4liang4. 美丽 ~ esthetic. 飘亮 ~ good looking.

bartu = outside = 外wai4

bartu ≔ x1 is on the outside of x2; x1 is exterior to x2
mi bartu = i'm outside  = 我在外面
mi bartu le zdani = i'm outside the house = 我在房子外面
mi bartu le do zdani = i'm outside your house = 我在你的房子外面 wo3zai4 ni3de3 fang2zi3 wai4mian4

do = you. “do zdani” = “your house”. One can also say “zdani pe do”. The “pe” is possesive, like “of” or 的.

面 mian4 =face, surface, side. 外面 = outside. 房子 = house. 在 = at.

zunle = left = 左zuo3

zunle ≔ x1 is to the left/left-hand side of x2 which faces/in-frame-of-reference x3
zo'e zunle mi = on my left
zo'e na zunle = not on left
zo'e zunle do = on your left

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