By Xah Lee. Date: . Last updated: .
se
2nd conversion; switch 1st/2nd places
te
3rd conversion; switch 1st/3rd places
ve
4th conversion; switch 1st/4th places
xe
5th conversion; switch 1st/5th places
na
bridi contradictory negator; scope is an entire bridi; logically negates in some cmavo compounds
na'e
contrary scalar negator: other than …; not …; a scale or set is implied
no'e
midpoint scalar negator: neutral point between je'a and to'e; "not really"
to'e
polar opposite scalar negator
du'u
abstractor: predication/bridi abstractor; x1 is predication [bridi] expressed in sentence x2
jei
abstractor: truth-value abstractor; x1 is truth value of [bridi] under metaphysics x2
ka
abstractor: property/quality abstractor (-ness); x1 is quality/property exhibited by [bridi]
li'i
abstractor: experience abstractor; x1 is x2's experience of [bridi] (participant or observer)
mu'e
abstractor: achievement (event) abstractor; x1 is the event-as-a-point/achievement of [bridi]
ni
abstractor: quantity/amount abstractor; x1 is quantity/amount of [bridi] measured on scale x2
nu
abstractor: generalized event abstractor; x1 is state/process/achievement/activity of [bridi]
pu'u
abstractor: process (event) abstractor; x1 is process of [bridi] proceeding in stages x2
si'o
abstractor: idea/concept abstractor; x1 is x2's concept of [bridi]
su'u
abstractor: generalized abstractor (how); x1 is [bridi] as a non-specific abstraction of type x2
za'i
abstractor: state (event) abstractor; x1 is continuous state of [bridi] being true
zu'o
abstractor: activity (event) abstractor; x1 is abstract activity of [bridi] composed of x2
bi'i
non-logical interval connective: unordered between … and … (rafsi represents any interval)
ce
non-logical connective: set link, unordered; "and also", but forming a set
ce'o
non-logical connective: ordered sequence link; "and then", forming a sequence
jo'e
non-logical connective: union of sets
jo'u
non-logical connective: in common with; along with (unmixed)
joi
non-logical connective: mixed conjunction; "and" meaning "mixed together", forming a mass
ku'a
non-logical connective: intersection of sets
pi'u
non-logical connective: cross product; Cartesian product of sets
ja
logical connective: tanru-internal afterthought or
je
logical connective: tanru-internal afterthought and
jo
logical connective: tanru-internal afterthought biconditional/iff/if-and-only-if
ju
logical connective: tanru-internal afterthought whether-or-not
bo
short scope joiner; joins various constructs with shortest scope and right grouping
ca'a
modal aspect: actuality/ongoing event
co
tanru inversion operator; "… of type …"; allows modifier trailing sumti without sumti links
co'a
interval event contour: at the starting point of …; initiative
co'e
elliptical/unspecified bridi relationship
co'u
interval event contour: at the ending point of … even if not done; Cessative>
du
identity selbri; = sign; x1 identically equals x2, x3, etc.; attached sumti refer to same thing
ke
start grouping of tanru, etc; … type of … ; overrides normal tanru left grouping
ke'e
elidable terminator: end of tanru left grouping override (usually elidable)
pu'i
modal aspect: can and has; demonstrated potential
roi
converts number to an objectively quantified tense interval modifier; defaults to time tense
nu'o
modal aspect: can but has not; unrealized potential
pe'a
marks figurative usage (non-literal) speech/text as a rafsi
va
location tense distance: near to … ; there at …; a medium/small distance from …
ve'e
location tense interval: the whole of space (rafsi is used to represent any space interval)
vi
location tense distance: here at … ; at, near, or a very short/tiny distance from …
vu
location tense distance: far from … ; yonder at … ; a long distance from …
za'o
interval event contour: continuing too long after natural end of …; superfective
ze'e
time tense interval: the whole of time (rafsi is used to represent any time interval)
ze'o
location tense relation/direction; beyond/outward/receding from …
zo'a
location tense relation/direction; tangential to/passing by …
zo'i
location tense relation/direction; nearer than …/inward/approaching from …
kei
elidable terminator: end abstraction bridi (often elidable)
le'e
non-veridical descriptor: the stereotype of those described as …
lo'e
veridical descriptor: the typical one(s) who really is(are) …
mo'i
mark motions in space-time
bu
convert any single word to BY
bu'a
logically quantified predicate variable: some selbri 1
broda
1st assignable variable predicate (context determines place structure)
brode
2nd assignable variable predicate (context determines place structure)
brodi
3rd assignable variable predicate (context determines place structure)
brodo
4th assignable variable predicate (context determines place structure)
brodu
5th assignable variable predicate (context determines place structure)
jufra
x1 (text) is a sentence/statement about x2 [topic/subject/predicate/focus] in language x3
lujvo
x1 (text) is a compound predicate word with meaning x2 and arguments x3 built from metaphor x4
bridi
x1 (text) is a predicate relationship with relation x2 among arguments (sequence/set) x3
sumti
x1 is a/the argument of predicate/function x2 filling place x3 (kind/number)