Chapter 9: To Boston Via The Road Go I, With An Excursion Into The Land Of Modals
The following table shows all the cmavo belonging to selma'o BAI, and has five columns. The first column is the cmavo itself; the second column is the gismu linked to it. The third column gives an English phrase which indicates the meaning of the cmavo; and the fourth column indicates its meaning when preceded by “se”.
For those cmavo with meaningful “te”, “ve”, and even “xe” conversions (depending on the number of places of the underlying gismu), the meanings of these are shown on one or two extra rows following the primary row for that cmavo.
It should be emphasized that the place structures of the gismu control the meanings of the BAI cmavo. The English phrases shown here are only suggestive, and are often too broad or too narrow to correctly specify what the acceptable range of uses for the modal tag are.
ba'i basti replaced by instead of bai bapli compelled by compelling bau bangu in language in language of be'i benji sent by transmitting te=sent to ve=with transmit origin xe=transmitted via ca'i catni by authority of with authority over cau claxu lacked by without ci'e ciste in system with system function te=of system components ci'o cinmo felt by feeling emotion ci'u ckilu on the scale on scale measuring cu'u cusku as said by expressing te=as told to ve=expressed in medium de'i detri dated on the same date as di'o diklo at the locus of at specific locus do'e ----- vaguely related to du'i dunli as much as equal to du'o djuno according to knowing facts te=knowing about ve=under epistemology fa'e fatne reverse of in reversal of fau fasnu in the event of fi'e finti created by creating work te=created for purpose ga'a zgana to observer observing te=observed by means ve=observed under cond. gau gasnu with agent as agent in doing ja'e jalge resulting in results because of ja'i javni by rule by rule prescribing ji'e jimte up to limit as a limit of ji'o jitro under direction controlling ji'u jicmu based on supporting ka'a klama gone to by with destination te=with origin ve=via route xe=by transport mode ka'i krati represented by on behalf of kai ckaji characterizing with property ki'i ckini as relation of related to te=with relation ki'u krinu justified by with justified result koi korbi bounded by as boundary of te=bordering ku'u kulnu in culture in culture of la'u klani as quantity of in quantity le'a klesi in category as category of te=defined by quality li'e lidne led by leading ma'e marji of material made from material te=in material form of ma'i manri in ref. frame as a standard for mau zmadu exceeded by more than me'a mleca undercut by less than me'e cmene with name as a name for te=as a name to mu'i mukti motivated by motive therefore mu'u mupli exemplified by as an example of ni'i nibli entailed by entails pa'a panra in addition to similar to te=similar in pattern ve=similar by standard pa'u pagbu with component as a part of pi'o pilno used by using tool po'i porsi in the sequence sequenced by rule pu'a pluka pleased by in order to please pu'e pruce by process processing from te=processing into ve=passing through stages ra'a srana pertained to by concerning ra'i krasi from source as an origin of rai traji with superl. superlative in te=at extreme ve=superlative among ri'a rinka caused by causing ri'i lifri experienced by experiencing sau sarcu requiring necessarily for te=necessarily under cond. si'u sidju aided by assisting in ta'i tadji by method as a method for tai tamsmi as a form of in form te=in form similar to ti'i stidi suggested by suggesting te=suggested to ti'u tcika with time at the time of tu'i stuzi with site as location of va'o vanbi under cond. as conditions for va'u xamgu benefiting from with beneficiary zau zanru approved by approving zu'e zukte with actor with means to goal te=with goal
The lujvo “tamsmi” on which “tai” is based is derived from the tanru “tarmi simsa” and has the place structure:
- x1 has form x2, similar in form to x3 in property/quality x4
This lujvo is employed because “tarmi” does not have a place structure useful for the modal's purpose.