Chapter 12: Dog House And White House: Determining lujvo Place Structures

12. Abstract lujvo

The cmavo of NU can participate in the construction of lujvo of a particularly simple and well-patterned kind. Consider that old standard example, “klama”:

✥12.1    k1 comes/goes to k2 from k3 via route k4 by means k5.

The selbri “nu klama [kei]” has only one place, the event-of-going, but the full five places exist implicitly between “nu” and “kei”, since a full bridi with all sumti may be placed there. In a lujvo, there is no room for such inside places, and consequently the lujvo “nunkla” (“nun-” is the rafsi for “nu”), needs to have six places:

✥12.2    nu1 is the event of k1's coming/going to k2 from k3
    via route k4 by means k5.

Here the first place of “nunklama” is the first and only place of “nu”, and the other five places have been pushed down by one to occupy the second through the sixth places. Full information on “nu”, as well as the other abstractors mentioned in this section, is given in Chapter 11.

For those abstractors which have a second place as well, the standard convention is to place this place after, rather than before, the places of the brivla being abstracted. The place structure of “nilkla”, the lujvo derived from “ni klama”, is the imposing:

✥12.3    ni1 is the amount of k1's coming/going to k2 from k3
    via route k4 by means k5, measured on scale ni2.

It is not uncommon for abstractors to participate in the making of more complex lujvo as well. For example, “nunsoidji”, from the veljvo

✥12.4    nu sonci kei djica
event-of being-a-soldier desirer

has the place structure

✥12.5    d1 desires the event of (s1 being a soldier of army s2)
    for purpose d3

where the d2 place has disappeared altogether, being replaced by the places of the seltau. As shown in ✥12.5, the ordering follows this idea of replacement: the seltau places are inserted at the point where the omitted abstraction place exists in the tertau.

The lujvo “nunsoidji” is quite different from the ordinary asymmetric lujvo “soidji”, a “soldier desirer”, whose place structure is just

✥12.6    d1 desires (a soldier of army s2) for purpose d3

A “nunsoidji” might be someone who is about to enlist, whereas a “soidji” might be a camp-follower.

One use of abstract lujvo is to eliminate the need for explicit “kei” in tanru: “nunkalri gasnu” means much the same as “nu kalri kei gasnu”, but is shorter. In addition, many English words ending in “-hood” are represented with “nun-” lujvo, and other words ending in “-ness” or “-dom” are often representable with “kam-” lujvo (“kam-” is the rafsi for “ka”); “kambla” is “blueness”.

Even though the cmavo of NU are long-scope in nature, governing the whole following bridi, the NU rafsi should generally be used as short-scope modifiers, like the SE and NAhE rafsi discussed in c12-§9.

There is also a rafsi for the cmavo “jai”, namely “jax”, which allows sentences like

✥12.7    mi jai rinka le nu do morsi
I am-associated-with causing the event-of your death.
I cause your death.

explained in Chapter 11, to be rendered with lujvo:

✥12.8    mi jaxri'a le nu do morsi
I am-part-of-the-cause-of the event-of your dying.

In making a lujvo that contains “jax-” for a selbri that contains “jai”, the rule is to leave the “fai” place as a “fai” place of the lujvo; it does not participate in the regular lujvo place structure. (The use of “fai” is also explained in Chapter 11.)