Chapter 10: Imaginary Journeys: The Lojban Space/Time Tense System
The following list of FAhA cmavo gives rough English glosses for the cmavo, first when used without “mo'i” to express a direction, and then when used with “mo'i” to express movement in the direction. When possible, the gismu from which the cmavo is derived is also listed.
cmavo gismu without mo'i with mo'i ----- ----- ------------ --------- ca'u crane in front (of) forward ti'a trixe behind backward zu'a zunle on the left (of) leftward ri'u pritu on the right (of) rightward ga'u gapru above upward(ly) ni'a cnita below downward(ly) ne'i nenri within into ru'u sruri surrounding orbiting pa'o pagre transfixing passing through ne'a next to moving while next to te'e bordering moving along the border (of) re'o adjacent (to) along fa'a farna towards arriving at to'o away from departing from zo'i inward (from) approaching ze'o outward (from) receding from zo'a tangential (to) passing (by) bu'u coincident (with) moving to coincide with be'a berti north (of) northward(ly) ne'u snanu south (of) southward(ly) du'a stuna east (of) eastward(ly) vu'a west (of) westward(ly)
Special note on “fa'a”, “to'o”, “zo'i”, and “ze'o”:
“zo'i” and “ze'o” refer to direction towards or away from the speaker's location, or whatever the origin is.
“fa'a” and “to'o” refer to direction towards or away from some other point.