Xah's Belles-lettres Blog Archive 2016-01 to 2016-03

Rhetorical Modes (Just Say: Writing Styles)

Chinese, Japanese, to Vertical or Not to Vertical

before modern times, Chinese is typically vertical, and right to left. People's Republic of China (the mainland China) changed that in early 1990s, to be horizontal, and left to right, as English. Part of the major reason is that western text can be embedded (such as math formula, chemistry tech names, etc.).

Taiwan's Chinese books, still mostly vertical, and right to left. Such as in novels.

the greeks has ox turning style, boustrophedon. That is, horizontal, but when reaching end of line, the next line down goes in reverse direction, and repeat. Word spelling are reversed. Each character is also reversed. Winding and winding.

see also Intro to Chinese Punctuation

breakfast = Literally means “breaking the fast” — of the night, as it is the first meal after sleeping. Fast means no food, as in, fasting.


unicase and bicameral

A unicase or unicameral alphabet is one that has no case for its letters. Persian, Kannada, Tamil, Arabic, Old Hungarian, Hebrew, Georgian and Hangul are unicase alphabets, while (modern) Latin, Greek, Cyrillic and Armenian are bicameral, as they have two cases for each letter, e.g., B/b, Β/β, Б/б, Բ/բ. Individual characters can also be called unicameral if they are used as letters with a generally bicameral alphabet but have only one form for both cases; for example, ʻokina (ʻ), used in Polynesian languages, and glottal stop (ʔ) as used in Nootka.

It is believed that all alphabets with case were once unicase[citation needed]. Latin, for example, used to be written with a unicase alphabet in imperial Roman times; it was only later that scribes developed new sets of symbols for running text, which became the lower case of the Latin alphabet, while the letterforms of Ancient Rome came to be called capitals or upper case.

The Georgian alphabet, on the other hand, has developed in the other direction: in the medieval period, Georgian also had two sets of letters available for bicameral writing, but the use of two cases later gave way to a unicameral system. The ecclesiastical form of the Georgian alphabet, Khutsuri, had an upper case called Asomtavruli (like the Ancient Roman capitals) and a lower case called Nuskhuri (like the medieval Latin scribal forms). Out of Nuskhuri came a secular alphabet called Mkhedruli, which is the unicase Georgian alphabet in use today.

A unicase version of the Latin alphabet was proposed by Michael Mann and David Dalby in 1982 as a variation of the Niamey African Reference Alphabet. This version has apparently never been actively used. Another example of unicase Latin alphabet is the Initial Teaching Alphabet. Occasionally some fonts use unicase designs to create an unusual effect; this was particularly popular in the 1960s.

The International Phonetic Alphabet only uses lowercase Latin (and Greek) letters and some scaled upper-case letters (small caps), effectively making it a unicase alphabet, although it is not used for actual writing of any language.

from Wikipedia Unicase

see also

Amharic language

የኢትዮጵያ ፡ መደበኛ ፡ ቋንቋ ፡ ነው። ከሴማዊ ፡ ቋንቋዎች ፡ እንደ ፡ ዕብራይስጥ ፡ ወይም ፡ ዓረብኛ ፡ አንዱ ፡ ነው። በአፍሪካ ፡ ውስጥ ፡ ደግሞ ፡ ከምዕራብ ፡ አፍሪካው ፡ ሐውሳና ፡ ከምሥራቅ ፡ አፍሪካው ፡ ስዋሂሊ ፡ ቀጥሎ ፡ 3ኛውን ፡ ቦታ ፡ የያዘ ፡ ነው። እንዲያውም ፡ 85.6 ፡ ሚሊዮን ፡ ያህል ፡ ተናጋሪዎች ፡ እያሉት ፣ አማርኛ ፡ ከአረብኛ ፡ ቀጥሎ ፡ ትልቁ ፡ ሴማዊ ፡ ቋንቋ ፡ ነው። የሚጻፈውም ፡ በአማርኛ ፡ ፊደል ፡ ነው። አማርኛ ፡ ከዓረብኛና ፡ ከዕብራይስጥ ፡ ያለው ፡ መሰረታዊ ፡ ልዩነት ፡ እንደ ፡ ላቲን ፡ ከግራ ፡ ወደ ፡ ቀኝ ፡ መጻፉ ፡ ነው።

this is Amharic language

interesting is that it has these punctuation characters:

a period (aka full stop) is

so, what other languages use its own set of punctuation that's different than English?

goto Unicode Search ☯ ☭ ⚡ → ∑ ♀ ♂ ♥ 😄, and type “full stop”. Also try search for any of {comma, question, colon, semicolon}.

most Western language, uses the same punctuation marks as English, even Chinese. 〔►see Intro to Chinese Punctuation

21 Accents. Fathia Izzati

see also English Accents

Writer's Words now, in one page too.

assess the caliber of your prolixity prowess, and aptitude for verbiage. GRE Words. Now, all in one page.

SAT Words. Now, all in one page.

Etymology of AV Idol (AV女優)

Chinese root of formal logic. Chinese, The Logicians or School of Names (名家)

Analytic Languages vs Synthetic Languages