《莊子》 齊物論 Zhuangzi

By Xah Lee. Date:

齐物是中国先秦时期道家思想术语。指超越万物差别,了解万物齐一的道理(“天地与我并生,万物与我为一”)。是达到逍遥境界的方法。思想主要陳述於《莊子》內篇的齊物論。齊物思想對後來尤其魏晉南北朝的思想產生影響。

莊子認為人類意識的病態使人們將注意力聚集於變幻無窮的周邊世界中,人們的喜好厭惡,對錯的是非觀通過各種形式變得固定起來,即便人正在與周邊世界的有限存在一樣步向死亡中也仍然執迷不悟。這就是「齊物」思想的起源,即對所有有限存在的絕對公平認識,超越事物間的差別,避免用是非、大小、好壞等主觀傾向看外物,打破人以自我為中心的精神限制,達到萬物齊一的境界,這是莊子哲學的顛峰之處。莊子深刻的認識到人與其他自然萬物不同,只需要互相貶斥對方是「錯誤的」,就能對同一件事有完全不同的意見(當時儒家與墨家間的衝突便是最好的證據,莊子對此表示了相當的失望),然而同存於「道」中,又有什麼能是「正確」或「錯誤」的呢?

齐物

The Zhuangzi (pronounced [ʈʂwáŋtsɨ̀]; Chinese: 莊子; Wade–Giles: Chuang-tzu) is an ancient Chinese text from the late Warring States period (3rd century BC) which contains stories and anecdotes that exemplify the carefree nature of the ideal Daoist sage. Named for its traditional author, “Master Zhuang” (Zhuangzi), the Zhuangzi is one of the two foundational texts of Daoism — along with the Dao De Jing (Laozi) — and is generally considered the most important of all Daoist writings.[1][2]

The Zhuangzi consists of a large collection of anecdotes, allegories, parables, and fables, which are often humorous or irreverent in nature.[3] Its main themes are of spontaneity in action and of freedom from the human world and its conventions.[4] The fables and anecdotes in the text attempt to illustrate the falseness of human distinctions between good and bad, large and small, life and death, and human and nature. While other philosophers wrote of moral and personal duty, Zhuangzi promoted carefree wandering and becoming one with “the Way” (Dào 道) by following nature.

Though primarily known as a philosophical work, the Zhuangzi is regarded as one of the greatest literary works in all of Chinese history, and has been called “the most important pre-Qin text for the study of Chinese literature.”[5] A masterpiece of both philosophical and literary skill, it has significantly influenced writers for more than 2000 years from the Han dynasty to the present.[5] Many major Chinese writers and poets in history — such as Sima Xiangru and Sima Qian during the Han dynasty, Ruan Ji and Tao Yuanming during the Six Dynasties, Li Bai during the Tang dynasty, and Su Shi and Lu You in the Song dynasty — were influenced by the Zhuangzi.[6]

Zhuangzi (book)